The Economics of Heat Pumps: A Global Perspective

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While the environmental benefits of heat pumps are well-documented, understanding their economic viability is critical in deciding their adoption rates. Heat pumps’ economics can vary considerably based on factors such as electricity prices, initial investment costs, and regional climate conditions. Here, we discuss the economics of heat pumps in different countries, their cost competitiveness, and the effects of recent energy crises.

Heat Pumps Economics Around the World

In countries like Sweden, which has an abundance of hydro and nuclear power, heat pumps have been a preferred choice due to comparatively low electricity prices. Similarly, in Denmark, heat pumps have become cost-competitive with gas-condensing boilers, a major competitor.

However, in countries like the United Kingdom, heat pumps are slightly more expensive than their gas alternatives. The perception of higher upfront costs, coupled with doubts about their ability to provide comfortable heating in cold climates, has hindered the adoption of heat pumps in these regions.

The Turning Tide in Favor of Heat Pumps

The European energy crisis and rising gas prices have recently made heat pumps a more economically attractive option. If gas prices remain at the high levels seen in 2022, market conditions could increasingly favor heat pumps over gas boilers.

Figure 6.3 compares the marginal costs of air-to-air heat pumps, air-to-water heat pumps, and gas boilers for selected countries.

Figure 6.3

The graph suggests that in the face of rising energy prices, the cost of heating with heat pumps is competitive, if not advantageous, compared to gas boilers in several countries. However, the challenge remains to create the right incentives to accelerate the shift from gas boilers to heat pumps.


While the upfront costs of heat pumps can be higher than fossil fuel alternatives, their long-term operational costs can be lower, especially in regions with low electricity prices. Moreover, with the increasing cost of gas and other fossil fuels, heat pumps are becoming an increasingly attractive option economically.

At Firstgreen Consulting, we believe in providing our clients with a comprehensive understanding of their energy choices. We ensure they have the latest and most accurate information to make decisions that are not just sustainable but also economically beneficial. With the right incentives and awareness, we can accelerate the transition to more sustainable and cost-effective heating solutions like heat pumps

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