India is facing a significant challenge in reducing its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. According to India’s GHG inventory, the country’s total GHG emissions in 2014 were 2.607 billion tonnes of CO2 equivalent. The energy sector, which includes electricity generation, accounted for the largest share of emissions at 67.3%, followed by agriculture at 17.8%, industry at 7.9%, waste at 3.8%, and buildings at 3.2%.

Sector-wise GHG Inventory

Let us take a closer look at the sector-wise GHG inventory of India.

  1. Energy sector: The energy sector is the largest contributor to GHG emissions in India, accounting for 67.3% of the total emissions. The electricity sector is responsible for only 30% of the emissions, with the remaining 37.3% coming from other sources such as transportation, cooking, and heating.
  2. Agriculture sector: The agriculture sector is the second-largest contributor to GHG emissions in India, accounting for 17.8% of the total emissions. The primary sources of emissions in this sector are enteric fermentation, manure management, and rice cultivation.
  3. Industry sector: The industry sector is responsible for 7.9% of the total emissions in India. The primary sources of emissions in this sector are fuel combustion, process emissions, and fugitive emissions.
  4. Waste sector: The waste sector is responsible for 3.8% of the total emissions in India. The primary sources of emissions in this sector are solid waste disposal and wastewater treatment.
  5. Buildings sector: The buildings sector is responsible for 3.2% of the total emissions in India. The primary sources of emissions in this sector are energy consumption, construction materials, and waste.

India’s GHG Emissions by 2030

India’s GHG emissions are projected to grow by 2030. According to the Niti Aayog report “Carbon Capture, Utilization, and Storage (CCUS) – A Key Enabler for India’s Low Carbon Energy Future,” India’s GHG emissions are likely to grow from 2.6 billion tonnes in 2014 to 4.4-4.7 billion tonnes by 2030.

The report states that India’s GHG emissions are likely to grow due to the following factors:

  1. Population growth: India’s population is expected to reach 1.6 billion by 2050, which will increase the demand for energy and other resources.
  2. Urbanization: India’s urban population is expected to grow from 410 million in 2014 to 814 million by 2050, which will increase the demand for housing, transportation, and other infrastructure.
  3. Economic growth: India’s economy is expected to grow at an average rate of 6.5% per year between 2014 and 2030, which will increase the demand for energy and other resources.

5 Strategies to Tackle India’s GHG Emissions

To tackle India’s GHG emissions, the following five strategies can be implemented:

  1. Increase the use of renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, and hydropower to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels.
  2. Encourage energy-efficient building design to reduce energy consumption and lower GHG emissions.
  3. Promote sustainable transportation systems such as electric vehicles, public transportation, and non-motorized transport.
  4. Implement waste management strategies such as recycling and composting to reduce the amount of waste that goes to landfills.
  5. Deploy carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology to capture and store emissions from power plants and other industrial facilities.